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Monthly Archives: February 2012

SAFE FOOD LIST FOR RABBITS

Safe Food for Rabbits-
This is as comprehensive a list as I can come up with, I may have left a few things out and would be happy to hear from you, i will add them and will post comments to this page! The names given are the common names, and I’ve given all the ones I know. However it is not a guide to the nutritional value of these foods and as always when starting rabbits on a natural feeding program go slow so the gut flora can adapt to the new feeds you are feeding your rabbits.
RABBIT SAFE FRUIT-
(Feed very, very sparingly… Super sugary! Up to 2 tbsp daily) :
Apple (NO core or anything containing seeds, unless all seeds removed)
Apricots (NO PITS)
Banana (fruit and peel)
Blackberry (stem, leaf and fruit)
Blueberries
Carambola
Cherry (NO PITS)
Cranberry
Currant (black and red)
Cucumber
Grapes (fruit, leaf and vine are edible)
Huckleberry
Kiwi Fruit
Mango
Nectarine
Orange (NO PEEL- segments only)
Melon (all melons)
Papaya (NO SEEDS)
Peach (NO PITS)
Pear
Pineapple
Plum (NO PITS)
Raspberries (twigs, and leaves – astringent)
Rose hip
Starfruit
Strawberries (and leaves)
Tomato (red fruit ONLY; no stems or leaves)
Tangerine (NO PEEL – segments only)
Watermelon

RABBIT SAFE VEGETABLES-
Alfalfa Sprouts
Artichoke Leaves
Arugula
Asparagus
Baby Sweet Corns (like in stirfry)***
Beet Greens
Beetroot
Bell Peppers (green, yellow, red, orange…)
Bok Choy/Pak Choy
Carrot Greens (tops)
Carrot (limited amount, due to high sugar content)
Celeriac
Celery (cut into small pieces to limit choking on strings)
Cucumber
Chard
Chicory Greens (aka Italian Dandelion… see discussion here )
Clover (WHITE only)
Collard Greens (be cautious, may cause bladder sludge (high calcium)
Dandelion Greens (no pesticides)
Eggplant (purple fruit only; leaves toxic)
Endive
Escarole
Grass (if cut from your own chemical/fertilizer/poison free back yard-I spread it out and dry it)
Kale
Lettuce (Dark Green/Red Leaf, Butter, Boston, Bibb, or Romaine – NO ICEBERG [no
nutritional value, may cause diarrhea])
Mustard Spinach
Nappa/Chinese Cabbage
Okra Leaves
Pak Choy/Bok Choy
Pumpkin
Radicchio
Radish tops (Limited amounts: can cause gas)
Raspberry Leaves
Rhubarb (RED STALKS ONLY – POISONOUS LEAF)
Squash: Yellow, Butternut, Pumpkin, Zucchini
Swiss Chard
Turnip Greens
Watercress
Wheat Grass
Zucchini

SAFE IN MODERATION:
Broccoli
Brussels Sprouts
Cabbage
Cauliflower
Kale
Mustard Greens
Spinach

SAFE FOODS:
Agrimony
Alfalfa
Apple
Avens
Balm
Banana
Barley
Basil
Beetroot
Blackberry
Borage
Broccoli
Buckwheat
Burnet
Camomile
Caraway
Carrot
Celery
Celeriac
Chervil
Chicory
Chickweed
Chinese leaf
Cleavers
Clover, WHITE
Coltsfoot
Comfrey-I feed fresh young leaves and also dry for winter tonic, but most breeders say they feed it slighty wilted
Coriander
Corn marigold
Corn spurrey
Cow parsnip
Crosswort
Cucumber
Dandelion
Dead-Nettles
Dill
Dock BEFORE FLOWERING
Endive
Fat hen
Fennel
Goosefoot
Goosegrass
Goutweed BEFORE FLOWERING
Ground elder BEFORE FLOWERING
Hawkbit
Hawkweed
Heather
Hedge parsley
Horseradish
Jerusalem artichoke
Knapweed
Knotgrass
Kohlrabi
Lavender
Lovage
Mallow
Marjoram
Mayweed
Maywort
Meadowsweet
Melon
Milk thistle
Mugwort
Nipplewort
Oats
Orache
Oxeye daisy
Parsley
Parsnip
Peas
Pear
Peppermint
Pigweed
Plantain
Pumpkin
Purslane
Radish GREENS
Raspberry
Sage
Savory
Sanfoin
Shepherd’s purse
Silverweed
Sow thistle
Soya
Strawberry
Swiss Chard
Tare
Tomatoes(fruit only leaves and stocks toxic!)
Trefoil
Vetch
Vine leaves
Watercress
Watermelon
Wheat
Yarrow

SAFE TREE AND SHRUB LEAVES-Should always feed only fresh young leaves:
Acacia
Apple
Beech
Birch
Blackberry
Cherry
Hazel
Horse Chestnut
Lime
Mountain Ash
Mulberry
Pear
Poplar (not black)
Raspberry
Strawberry

SAFE TWIGS-
Apple
Birch
Blackberry
Fir
Hazel
Hawthorn
Maple
Pear
Raspberry
Spruce
Willow

SAFE FLOWERS-
Aster
Daisy
Geranium
Geum
Helenium
Hollyhock
Honesty
Marguerite
Marigold
Michaelmas daisy
Nasturtium
Rose
Stock
Sunflower

SAFE HERBS-
Basil: Lemon, Globe, Thai, Mammoth, Sweet, Genevieve
Borage
Camomile
Caraway
Clover
Chervil
Comfrey
Coriander/Cilantro
Dill: Fernleaf, Mammoth
Fennel
Garden Cress
Groundsel
Lavender (Not for pregnant does; can cause fetal expulsion)
Lemon Balm
Lovage
Marjoram
Mint: Pineapple sage, pineapple mint, apple mint, orange mint, peppermint, lemon thyme, cinnamon basil, lime basil, lemon basil, sweet basil, licorice basil, “licorice mint” (anise hyssop), spearmint, peppermint, chocolate mint, and basil mint.
Oregano
Peppermint
Parsley: Curly and Flat-Leaf
Rosemary
Sage: Pineapple is quite good
Salad Burnet / Small Burnet
Summer Savory
Tarragon
Thyme

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WINTER CARE FOR RABBITS

Winter is now approaching and so the issue of raising rabbits in cold weather is on many rabbit breeders minds. As with any livestock on the homestead winter can present many challenges in the proper care of these animals. Rabbits are very adaptable to cold temperatures much more than the heat. Cold weather will invigorate your rabbits and bring out their natural playfulness. Temperatures below freezing for extended periods of time and strong winds that lower the wind chill temps can be a problem for newborn or young rabbits.

Make shure that the location of your rabbitry, be it in a barn, shed or hutches should be located in a sheltered area. This will be some added protection from the wind, especially north winds. It should have a roof of some kind and, depending on the kind of shelter, will need protection on the sides. Wooden hutches with wire bottoms and wire fronts are great for cold weather because they offer protection on the top and three sides. For maximum storm protection, a heavy canvas cover can be made for the front of the cage that will be rolled up during nice weather, but that can be put into place during wind, storms, and at night.

Rabbits can withstand very low temps as long as they can remain dry and find insulation from the cold to conserve body heat (using a nest-box full of straw or putting large amounts of bedding in their cages). Most meat breeds of rabbits have a thick coat which is a exceptional insulator against the weather, but if water reaches their skin they will be unable to stay warm. The key to winter housing for rabbits is to avoid the drafts and swirls of winter air which can stress your rabbits and reduce their natural immune system. Your rabbits MUST stay dry.

If you have no enclosed rabbit barn, plastic sheeting should be stapled to the back and sides or temporary wood sides and backs should be used. You must remember to cover, close to the ground to prevent updrafts into the cage but leave some space for the rabbit to get fresh air, stale humid air is very unhealthy for rabbits. It is important not to completely block ventilation in you rabbit barn, shed, or hutchs. Ventilation in the rabbitry is just as important in the winter as it is in the summer. Insulating a barn for the winter will help keep the barn a little warmer. A balance between shelter and ventilation is important!

I have had over 25 cages/hutches outside they have a roof over them and have the back covered. In the winter I cover the sides and bottom of the front of cage with heavy plastic. I leave a gap at the very top and bottom for airflow and in bad weather will put a roll down cover in the front, sometimes in really bad weather I will also fill a nest-box with straw and put in the cage for the rabbit to keep warm. This would be similar to a wild rabbit going into its den during extreme cold. I have also made some “ARTIC WEATHER CAGES” that I only use in the winter that has three sides covered with plywood and the bottom front with plastic. I have the sides and back walls double thickness with foam insulation between the plywood. I have had litters in these all winter long with never any problems with no additional heat!

In my own experience young rabbits seem to grow better and have less health problems in cool or cold weather (They do grow slower in the winter). Most other rabbit breeders tell me that litters can’t be born outdoors when the temperature is below freezing. Well, here in Maine, my doe’s haven’t heard about that (don’t tell them either!), and produce young year round, freezing weather or not.

As long as plenty of nesting material is provided and the mother covers her babies with fur, the bunnies won’t freeze. The nesting material I’ve found most suitable for winter use is wood shavings and straw, which mix well with the fur and can be burrowed into for warmth. One reason I don’t have problems with does losing litters to cold weather is that I cull any female that doesn’t pull out enough hair to make a good nest. We’ve been raising rabbits for about 30 years and have lost an occasional kit in the winter but never an entire litter. By observing your rabbits and culling you can make your bloodline do what you want.

I have only had problems with rabbits in the cold when the kits clung on to their mothers teat and got pulled out of the nest-box and into the cold after nursing.

It gets cold here some times -12 to as low as -20. I have heard from other breeders in cold climates and they also breed all winter long. I have also made some insulated closed nest boxes that work great in the outside hutches but you got to keep the bedding clean and dry if wet it will freeze and freeze the kits so more management is needed. I have seen some really good ideas people have come up with Christmas tree lights in nest-boxes, lights under the nest-box, heat lights above the boxes, commercial nest-box warmers (I refuse to use bought power to raise rabbits, unless I make it here with the wind and sun. I am working on methane production next).

My rabbits are all receptive to breed in the winter without added lights or heat (selective breeding for your area works awsome) but if you have problems breeding your rabbits in the winter try running lights to extend the light period for 14 to 16 hours a day (you could rig up some of the solar path lights). Breeding through the winter can present problems, kits are born without fur the doe compensates for this by pulling lots of fur and covering the kits.

I use my wooden nest boxes lined with cardboard. I put a inch of shavings on the base of the nest-box and cover with another layer of cardbord. By sandwiching the shavings between 2 layers of cardboard to keep the floor of the box insulated.I also line the sides with cardbord. I have seen breeders that take the nest-boxes into the house put the does name or number on the box and then bring the boxes back to the does cages 1 or 2 times a day to let her feed her kits with great results, you usally only need to worry for the first 2 weeks then the kits get enough fur to survive the cold temperatures and will often huddle together for added warmth then you can leave the boxes in with the does.

WATER- Is the main concern in the winter because of frozen water crocks. I use water bottles all the time except in the winter I switch over to metal crocks (metal does not crack due to the expanding ice). Some breeders still use bottles and have spares to swap out the frozen bottles. I Have found that the metal tubes freeze to quickly and the water in the bottles will still not be frozen but the water is not available to the rabbits because of the frozen tube. The metal crocks are easier to thaw out than plastic or glass, it takes a 5 gallon bucket of hot water to thaw all of my crocks. I drop a few crocks in the hot water and the ice pops out, I put the ice in a separate bucket to make the hot water last longer. Some people use hammers to smash out the ice or just have spare crocks. Your diligence in making sure they have fresh water greatly increases their comfort level and chances of survival. Rabbits will not eat if there is no water available they need the food calories to keep warm. You should make sure to provide fresh ice free water at least 2 times a day once in the morning and again in the evening ,preferably more often if you can.

FEED- It takes more energy for a rabbit to keep warm they are burning more calories during frigid temperatures trying to generate more body heat. Hay and feed should be slightly increased as they will need the extra calories in the winter to maintain their body weight. It is important not to overfeed! Feed to maintain their body weight. Rabbits that gain weight in the winter will not breed and if you do not breed in the winter they will have problems breeding in the following spring. I have some friends in Alaska that feed a condition mix in the winter (2/3 crimped oats,1/3 crimped barley plus a few black sunflower seeds) to keep them maintained at the proper body weight. My winter herbal hay mix that I make up (will do a post on this in the spring) has dry basil leaves added, this herb acts as a warming and uplifting tonic for nervous rabbits or added benefit in any cold conditions.

HEALTH- A rabbits body temperature is 101.5 to 103 degree Fahrenheit. When their body temperature drops below 100 degrees rectal temp it must be warmed up immediately or hypothermia will set in and kill the rabbit. The way to warm a rabbit depends on the severity of hypothermia. Mild hypothermia is when the temps get to 86-89 degrees-Treatment would be packing the rabbit between warm water bottles wrapped in a towels until body temp returns to normal. Warming the rabbit to quickly will put the rabbit in shock. Moderate hypothermia 71 to 77 degrees and Severe hypothermia 32 to 47 degrees rectal temperature. Begin treatment by bringing rabbit into a heated room and allow to warm naturally and then use the water bottles as recommended for mild hypothermia to get the rabbit back to normal body temp. Avoid rubbing the rabbit as this can increase the flow of cold blood into the core of the body increasing the depth of hypothermia. If the core body heat is lost the rabbit will enter a kind of suspended animation were the normal body functions slow down. In many cases,the animal will survive if you follow the procedures as listed. I have never had a case of hypothermia in any of my rabbits.

If you take care to feed and water your rabbits no matter how bad the weather is! (it is up to you to take the responsibility to care for your herd) Your rabbits will handle the winter weather fine. Keep an old towel on hand to dry your rabbits if they get wet from unexpected winter storms. I have never lost any rabbit in the winter other than the young kits that have been dragged out of the nest box when nursing.

Cold weather can be deadly for any animal, but with a few precautions and your rabbit’s naturally well-insulated body, the animal can live warm and comfortable in even the coldest climates. Rabbits survive in the wild further north than most other animals, but your rabbits relie on you to give it the benifits that allow their wild ancesters to live throughout the year.

Hope this answers any of your winter rabbit needs. If any questions or other good ideas feel free to post in the comment section or email me! riseandshinerabbitry@hotmail.com

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Raising Meat Rabbits To Save The World!

POISONOUS PLANTS TO RABBITS‏

Many plants listed here are not all poisonous, only parts of them are. Apple is a good example: the seeds are poisonous, but the fruit is perfectly fine for rabbits. Read the complete listing of the plant to get details regarding which parts to avoid. If no parts are listed, assume that the whole plant is poisonous and should not be in fed to your rabbit.

Acokanthera (Acokanthera)-fruit, flowers very poisonous

Aconite (Aconitum)-all parts very poisonous

African rue (Peganum harmala)

Agapanthus (Nerine bowdenii)

Aloe vera (Aloe vera)

Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum)

Amanita (Amanita)-all parts

Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)-bulbs

Amaryllis belladonna (Brunsvigia rosea)-bulbs

Anemone (Anemone sp.)

Angel trumpet tree (Datura, Brugmansia arborea)-flowers, leaves, seeds

Anthurium (Anthurium)

Apple (Malus sylvestris)-seeds contain cyanide

Apple leaf croton (Codiaeum variegatum)

Apricot (Prunus armeniaca)-pits contain cyanide

Arrowgrass (Triglochin sp.)

Arrowhead vine (Syngormon podophyllum)-oxalates

Asparagus fern (Asparagus sprengeri)

Atropa belladonna (Atropa belladonna)-all parts, esp. black berries

Autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale)-corms

Avocado (Persea americana)

Azalea (Rhododendron occidentale)-all parts fatal

B

Baccharis (Baccharis sp.)

Balsam (Impatiens balsamina)-whole plant

Balsam pear-seeds, outer rind of fruit

Baneberry (Actaea alba, rubra, spicata)-berries, roots, foliage

Beach pea (Lathyrus maritimus)

Beargrass (Nolina texana)

Beefsteak plant (Perilla frutescens)

Begonia (sand)

Belladonna, Atropa (Atropa belladonna)-all parts, esp. black berries

Belladonna lily (Brunsvigia rosea)-bulbs

Betel nut palm (Areca catechu)-all parts

Bird of paradise (Strelitzia poinciana)-seeds

Bird of paradise bush (Casesalpinia gilliesii)-seeds, pods

Bittersweet (Celastrus, dulcamera)-berries

Bitterweed (Hymenoxys odorata)

Black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger)

Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)-bark, sprouts, foliage

Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum)-leaves, berries

Black root

Bladderpod (Sesbania vesicarium)

Bleeding heart (Dicentra)-foliage, roots

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)

Bluebonnet (Lupinus spp.)-all parts

Blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)

Blue-green algae-some forms toxic

Bog Kalmia (Kalmia)

Boston ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata)

Bottlebrush (Callistemon)-flowers

Boxwood (Buxus sp.)-all parts

Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum)

Branching ivy (Hedera helix-Weber’s California)-all parts

Broomcorn (Sorghum vulgare)

Broomweed (Gutierrezia microcephala)

Buckeye (Aesculus)-sprouts, nuts

Buckthorn (Amsinckia intermedia)-fruit, bark

Bull nettle

Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)

Burroweed (Haplopappus heterophyllus)

Buttercup (Ranunculus sp.)-all parts

Butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa)

C

Cactus thorn

Caesalpinia (Poinciana)-seeds, pods

Caladium (Caladium portulanum)-all parts

Calendula (Calendula officinalis)

Calico bush (Kalmia latifolia)-young leaves, shoots are fatal

California fern (Conium maculatum)-all parts are fatal

California geranium (Senecio petasitis)-whole plant

California holly (Heteromeles arbutifolia)-leaves

Calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopiea, Calla palustris)-all Parts

Candelabra cactus

Cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis)-all parts

Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus)-all parts

Carolina jessamine (Gelsemium)-whole plant

Carolina Laurel Cherry (Prunus caroliana)-all parts

Casava (Euphorbiacea)-roots, sap

Cassine (Ilex vomitoria)-berries

Castor bean (Ricinus communis)-seeds are fatal, leaves

Century plant (Agave americana)

Ceriman (Monstera deliciosa)

Chalice vine-all parts

Cherries, wild and cultivated-twigs and foliage are fatal, bark, pits

Cherry, Jerusalem (Solanium nigrum/eleagnifolium/ pseudocapsicum)-fruits, leaves

Cherry laurel (Prunus var.)-all parts are fatal

Cherry, Natal (Solamon)-berries

Chestnut, Horse (Aesculus)-all parts

Chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach)-berries

Chokecherry (Prunus serotina)-withered leaves

Christmas berry (Heteromeles arbutifolia)-leaves

Christmas candle-sap

Christmas rose (Helleborus niger)-all parts, esp. leaves

Cineraria (Senecio hybridus)-whole plant

Clematis (Clematis)

Cloak fern (Notholaena sinuata var cochisensis)

Clover, Alsike (Trifolium hybridum)

Cocklebur (Xanthium sp.)

Coffeebean (Sesbania drummondii)

Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)

Colorado rubberweed (Hymenoxys richardsonii)

Columbine (Aquilegia)-all parts

Common privet (Ligustrum)-all parts

Coral berry (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus)-seeds

Coral plant (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus)-seeds

Cordatum (Philodendron oxycardium)

Corn cockle (Agrostemma githago)

Corn lily (Symplocarpus foetidus)-all parts

Corn plant (Dracaena fragrans massangeana)

Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster)

Covotillo (Karwinskia humboldtiana)-berries

Cowslip (Caltha palustris)

Crab’s eye (Abrus precatorius)-seeds are fatal

Creeping charlie, except houseplant (Glecoma, Nepeta hederacea)

Cress/Crucifers/Mustards (Cruciferae-Brassica Raphanus, Descurainia spp.)

Crocus (Crocus)-corms

Crocus, Autumn (Colchicum autumnale)-corms

Croton (Codiaeum variegatum, Euphorbiacea)

Crown-of-thorns (Euphorbia milli)-leaves, flowers

Crown vetch (Astragalus sp.)-all parts

Crow poison (Amianthium muscaetoxicum)

Crucifers/Cress/Mustards (Cruciferae-Brassica, Raphanus, Descurainia spp.)

Cuban laurel (Ficus spp.)

Cuckoopint (Arum maculatum)-all parts

Curcas bean-seeds, oil

Cutleaf philodendron (Monstera deliciosa)

Cycads (Cycas spp., Zamia spp.)

Cyclamen (Cyclamen sp.)

D

Daffodil (Narcissus)-bulbs may be fatal

Daisy (Chrysanthemum frutescens)

Daphne (Daphne mezereum)-berries are fatal

Datura (Brugmansia, all species)-all parts

Deadly amanita (Amanita)-all parts

Deadly nightshade (Solanum nigrum)-all parts, unripe fruit, foliage

Death-camas (Sygodenus venesii, Zygadenus nuttallii)-all parts poisonous, roots fatal

Death cup (Amanita phalloides)-all parts

Delphinium (Delphinium sp.)-all parts

Desert tobacco

Destroying angel (Amanita phalloides)-all parts

Devil’s ivy (Scindapsus aureus, Epipremnum aureum)

Devil’s tomato (Solanum eleagnifolium)-all parts

Dianthus (Dianthus)-all parts

Dieffenbachia (Dieffenbachia)-all parts, esp. sap

Dogbane (Apocynum sp.)-leaves

Dogwood (Cornus)-fruit slightly poisonous

Doll’s Eyes (Actaea alba, rubra, spicata)-berries, roots, foliage

Dracaena palm (Dracaena sanderiana)

Dragon tree (Dracaena draco)

Drymary (Drymaria pachyphylla)

Dumb cane (Dieffenbachia amoena)-all parts, esp. sap

Durra (Sorghum vulgare)

Dutchman’s breeches (Dicentra)-foliage, roots

Dutchman’s pipe (Aristolochia durior)

E

Eggplant-all parts but fruit

Elaine (Codiaeum elaine)

Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis)-all parts

Elephant’s ear (Colocasia esculenta, Philodendron domesticum, Caladium hortulanum)-all parts

Emerald duke (Philodendron hastatum)

Emerald feather (Asparagus sprengeri)

English ivy (Hedera helix-ilex acid)-all parts

English laurel (Prunus laurocerasus)-all parts are fatal

Euonymus (Euonymus)

Euphorbia (Euphorbia sp.)-leaves, flowers, sap

Evening trumpet (Gelsemium sempervirens)-whole plant

Exotica perfection

Eyebane (Euphorbia maculata)

F

False henbane-all parts

False hellebore (Veratrum viride and other sp.)-all parts poisonous, root deadly

False parsley (Conium maculatum)-all parts are fatal

Fiddle-leaf fig (Ficus lyrata)

Fiddleneck (Amsinckia intermedia)-fruit, bark

Firecracker (Dichelostemma ida-maia)

Firethorn (Pyracantha sp.)

Fireweed (Amsinckia intermedia)-fruit, bark

Florida beauty (Dracaena spp.)

Fluffy ruffles

Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria)-whole plant

Fly poison (Amianthium muscaetoxicum)

Fool’s parsley (Conium maculatum)-all parts are fatal

Four o’clock (Mirabilis jalapa)-whole plant

Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)-all parts can be fatal

Foxwood

Frijolito (Sophora secundiflora)-all parts

Fruit salad plant (Philodendron pertusum)

G

Garden sorrel (Rumex acetosa)-oxalates

Gelsemium (Gelsemium)-whole plant

Geranium, California (Senecio petasitis)-whole plant

German ivy (Senecio mikanioides)-whole plant

Ghostweed (Euphorbia marginata)-all parts

Giant dumbcane (Dieffenbachia amoena)-all parts, esp. sap

Glacier ivy (Hedera helix Glacier)-all parts

Gladiola (Gladiolus sp.)

Glecoma hederacea (Nepeta hederacea)

Glory lily (Gloriosa sp.)

Goatweed (Hypericum perforatum)

Gold dieffenbachia-all parts, esp. sap

Gold dust dracaena (Dracaena godseffiana)

Goldenchain tree (Laburnum)-seeds, pods may be fatal

Golden pothos (Epipremnum aureus)

Gold-toothed aloe (Aloe nobilis)

Greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus)

Green-gold nephythytis (Syngonium podophyllum xanthophilum)

Ground ivy (Nepeta hederacea)

Groundsel (Crotalaria spp.)

Groundsel (Senecio sp.)-whole plant

Guajillo (Acacia berlandieri)

H

Halogeton (Halogeton glomeratus)

Hawaiian baby wood rose

Heart ivy (Hedera helix)-all parts

Heartleaf (Philodendron cordatum, Philodendron oxycardium)

Heavenly bamboo (Nandina domestica)-leaves

Hedge apples

Hellebore (Ranunculacea, Helleborus, Veratrum)-all parts

Hemlock (Conium, Cicuta, Tsuga)-all parts

Hemp, Indian (Cannabis sativa, Apocynum sp.)-leaves

Henbane, Black (Hyoscyamus niger)-all parts

Hogwort

Holly (Ilex aquifolium, opaca, vomitoria)-leaves, berries

Horsebrush (Tetradymia sp.)

Horsechestnut (Aesculus)-all parts

Horse-head (Philodendron oxycardium)

Horse nettle (Solanum carolinense)-all parts, esp. fruits, leaves

Horsetail reed (Equisetum sp.)-all parts

Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis)-bulbs can be fatal

Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla)-whole plant

I

Impatiens (Impatiens)-whole plant

Indian hemp (Apocynum cannabinum)-leaves

Indian laurel (Ficus retusa nitida)

Indian rubber plant (Ficus elastica Decora)

Indian tobacco (Nicotiana giauca) -all parts

Indian turnip (Arisaema triphyllum)-all parts

Indigo (Indigofera sp.)

Inkberry (Ilex glabra)-leaves, berries

Inkweed (Drymaria pachyphylla)

Iris (Iris sp.)-underground rhizome, leaves

Ivy (Hedera)-all parts

Ivy bush (Kalmia angustifolia)-leaves

J

Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum)-all parts

Jamestown weed (Datura, Brugmansia stramomium)-all parts

Jatropha-seeds, oil

Java bean (Phaseolus limensis)-uncooked bean

Jequirity bean (Abrus precatorius)-seeds are fatal

Jerusalem cherry (Solanium nigrum/eleagnifolium/ pseudocapsicum)-fruits, leaves

Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)-flowers, leaves, berries fatal

Jessamine, Carolina (Gelsemium)-flowers, leaves, seeds

Jessamine, Night-blooming (Cestrum nocturnum)

Jimmy fern (Notholaena sinuata var cochisensis)

Jimson weed (Datura, Brugmansia stramomium)-all parts

Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense)

Juniper (Juniperus)-needles, stems, berries

K

Kafir (Sorghum vulgare)

Klamath weed (Hypericum perforatum)

L

Lady slipper (Cypripedium spectabiles)-all parts

Lambkill (Kalmia angustifolia)-leaves

Lantana camara (Lantana camara)-green berries are fatal

Larkspur (Delphinium)-all parts, seeds may be fatal

Laurel, Cherry (Prunus caroliniana)-all parts are fatal

Laurel, Cuban (Ficus spp.)

Laurel, Indian (Ficus retusa nitida)

Lecheguilla (Agave lecheguilla)

Ligustrum (Ligustrum ovalifolium)-all parts

Lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis)-all parts, including water

Lima bean (Phaseolus limensis)-uncooked bean

Lobelia (Lobelia sp.)-all parts

Locoweed (Astragalus sp.)-all parts

Lords-and-ladies (Arum maculatum)-all parts

Lupine (Lupinus)-all parts

M

Machineel-all parts

Madagascar dragon tree (Dracaena marginata)

Majesty (Philodendron hastatum)

Mandrake (Podophyllum pellatum)-all parts

Marble queen (Scindapsus aureus)-oxalates

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa)-all parts

Marsh marigold (Primula veris)

Mayapple (Podophyllum pellatum)-all parts

Medicine plant (Aloe vera)

Mescal (Lophophora williamsii)-cactus tops

Mescal bean (Sophora secundiflora)-all parts

Mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa)

Mexican breadfruit (Monstera deliciosa)

Mexicantes

Milkvetch (Astragalus sp.)-all parts

Milkweed (Asclepias sp.)-all parts

Milo (Sorghum vulgare)

Miniature croton (Punctatis aureus)

Mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens)-berries are fatal

Moccasin flower (Cypripedium spectabiles)-all parts

Monkshood (Aconitum napellus)-all parts

Moonseed (Menispermum)-berries can be fatal

Morning glory (Ipomoea violacea)-all parts

Mother-in-law (Monstera deliciosa)

Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia)-young leaves, shoots are fatal

Mushroom

Mustards/Crucifers/Cress (Cruciferae-Brassica, Raphanus, Descurainia spp.)

N

Narcissus (Narcissus)-bulb can be fatal

Natal cherry (Solamon)-berries

Nephthytis (Syngonium podophyllum albolinea-tum)-oxalates

Needlepoint ivy (Hedera helix Needlepoint)-all parts

Nicotiana (Nicotiana)-wild, cultivated leaves

Night-blooming jessamine (Cestrum nocturnum)

Nightshade (Solanum carolinense)-all parts, esp. fruits, leaves

Nightshade (Solanum eleagnifolium)-all parts

O

Oaks (Quercus)-foliage, acorns

Oleander (Nerium oleander)-foliage, branches, nectar

Orange milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa)

Orange sneezeweed (Helenium hoopesii)

Ornamental tobacco (Nicotiana)-all parts

Oxalis (Oxalis)-oxalates

P

Palma christi (Ricinus communis)-seeds are fatal, leaves

Panda (Philodendron panduraeformae)

Paper flowers (Psilostrophe sp.)

Paradise plant

Parlor ivy (Philodendron elegans, Philodendron cordatum, Philodendron pertusum)

Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa)

Partridge breast (Aloe variegata)

Peach (Prunus persica)-pit contains cyanide

Pear (Pyrus communis)-seeds contains cyanide

Pear, Balsam-seeds, outer rind of fruit

Pencilbush (Euphorbia tirucalli)

Pencil cactus (Euphorbia tirucalli)

Peony (Paeonia sp.)-all parts

Peregrina-seeds, oil

Perill mint (Perilla frutescens)

Periwinkle (Vinca sp.)-whole plant

Peyote (Lophophora williamsii)-cactus tops

Philodendron (Philodendron)-leaves, stem, sap

Philodendron, Cutleaf (Monstera deliciosa)

Pigweed (Amaranthus spp.)-oxalates

Pingue (Hymenoxys richardsonii)

Pinks (Dianthus)-all parts

Plum (Prunus)-seeds contain cyanide

Plumosa fern (Asparagus plumosus)

Poinciana (Poinciana gillesii)-green seeds, pods

Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima)-leaves, sap are fatal, flowers

Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum)-all parts are fatal

Poison ivy (Rhus radicans)-all parts

Poison nut

Poison oak (Rhus, Toxicodendron diversilobium)-all parts

Poison parsnip (Cicuta maculata)-all parts, esp. root, are fatal

Poison sumac (Rhus vernix)-all parts

Pokeberry (Phytolacca americana)-roots

Pokeroot (Phytolacca americana)-roots

Poke salad (Phytolacca americana)-roots

Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana)-roots

Poppy, except California (Papaver)

Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis)

Pot mum (Chrysanthemum mortiforium)

Potato (Solanum tuberosum)-green parts are fatal, eyes

Pothos (Scindapsus aureus)-oxalates

Precatory bean (Abrus precatorius)-seeds are fatal

Prickly copperweed (Oxytenia acerosa)

Prickly poppy (Argemone)

Primrose (Primula spp.)

Primula (Primula spp.)

Privet (Ligustrum)-all parts

Purge nut-seeds, oil

Purple sesbane (Daubentonia punicea)

Psychic nut-seeds, oil

Pyracantha (Pyracantha sp.)

Q

Queen Anne’s Lace (Daucus carota)

R

Ranunculus (Ranunculus)-all parts

Rattlebox (Crotalaria spp., Daubentonia punicea)

Rattleweed (Crotalaria spp.)

Rayless goldenrod (Iscoma aerigum)

Red clover (Trifolium pratense)-hays when moldy

Red emerald (Philodendron red emerald)

Red-margined dracaena (Dracaena marginata)

Red princess (Philodendron hastatum)

Red sage (Lantana camara)-green berries are fatal

Rhododendron (Rhododendron)-all parts are fatal

Rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum)-leaves fatal

Ribbon plant (Dracaena sanderiana)

Ripple ivy (Hedera)-all parts

Rosary bean (Abrus precatorius)-seeds are fatal

Rosary pea (Abrus precatorius)-seeds are fatal

Rosebay (Rhododendron occidentale)-all parts fatal

Rosemary (Rosemarinus)-leaves of some varieties are poisonous

Rubber plant, Indian (Ficus elastica Decora)

Rum cherry (Prunus serotina)-withered leaves

S

Sacahuista (Nolina texana)

Saddle leaf philodendron (Philodendron selloum)

Sage (Salvia)-leaves of some varieties are poisonous

Sago palm (Cycas)

Sand begonia

Satin pothos (Scindapsus spp., Pothos wilcoxii)

Schefflera (Brassia actinophylla)

Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius)-seeds

Senecio (Senecio)-whole plant

Senna-bean (Sesbania drummondii)

Sesbane (Sesbania, Glottidium mesicaria)

Sesbane, Purple (Daubentonia punicea)

Shamrock plant (Oxalis acetosella)

Sheep laurel (Kalmia angustifolia)-leaves

Silverleaf (Solanum eleagnifolium)-all parts

Silverling (Baccharis sp.)

Silver pothos (Scindapsus aureus)-oxalates

Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus)-all parts

Slinkweed (Gutierrezia microcephala)

Snapdragon (Antirrhinum)-all parts

Snapweed (Impatiens)-whole plant

Sneezeweed, Orange (Helenium hoopesii)

Snowdrop (Galanthus)-all parts

Snow-on-the-mountain (Euphorbia marginata)-all parts

Solanum (Solanum)-berries

Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum multiflorum)

Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare)

Snake palm

Snakeroot, White (Eupatorium rugosum)

Snakeweed (Gutierrezia microcephala)

Sorrel, Garden (Rumex acetosa)-oxalates

Spathe flower (Spathiphyllum)

Spider mum (Chrysanthemum mortiforium)

Split-leaf philodendron (Monstera deliciosa, Philodendron pertusum)

Spotted dumb cane (Dieffenbachia)

Sprengeri fern (Asparagus sprengeri)

Spurge (Euphorbiaceae)-leaves, flowers

Squill (Scilla autumnalis)

Squirrel corn (Dicentra canadensis)-all parts

Staggergrass (Amianthium muscaetoxicum)

Star of Bethlehem (Ornithogalum umbellatum)-all parts

Stinkweed (Brugmansia)

St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum)

Stranomium-all parts

String of beads/pearls (Senecio rowleyanus)-whole plant

Striped dracaena (Dracaena deremensis)

Sudan grass (Sorghum vulgare)

Swamp laurel (Kalmia)

Sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus)-stems, seeds, fruit

Sweet William (Dianthus)-all parts

Swiss cheese plant (Monstera friedrichsthalii)

Sweetheart ivy (Hedera helix)-all parts

T

Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)-all parts

Tansy ragwort (Senecio sp.)-whole plant

Taro ( Colocasia esculenta)-stem, leaves

Taro vine (Scindapsus aureus)

Thorn apple (Datura, Brugmansia stramomium)-all parts

Tiger lily (Lilium tigrinum)-all parts

Toadstools

Tobacco ( Nicotiana giauca)-all parts

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-leaves, vines

Touch-me-not (Impatiens)-whole plant

Toyon ( Heteromeles arbutifolia)-leaves

Tree philodendron (Scindapsus aureus)

Tropic snow (Dieffenbachia amoena)-all parts, esp. sap

True aloe (Aloe vera)

Trumpet plant-all parts

Trumpet vine-all parts

Tullidora (Karwinskia humboldtiana)-berries

Tulip (Tulipa)-bulb

Turpentine weed (Gutierrezia microcephala)

U

Umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius)

V

Variegated philodendron (Scindapsus)

Venus flytrap (Dionaea)-all parts

Victoria regia

Violet (Viola odorata)-seeds

Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)-sap

W

Warneckei dracaena (Dracaena dermensis warneckei)

Water hemlock (Cicuta maculata)-all parts, esp. root, are fatal

White snakeroot (Eupatorium rugosum)

Wild black cherry (Prunus serotina)-withered leaves

Wild carrot (Daucus carota)

Wild cucumber

Wild jasmine (Cestrum nocturnum)

Wild parsnip

Wild pea (Crotalaria spp.)

Windflower (Anemone sp.)

Wisteria (Wisteria)-all parts

Wolfsbane (Aconitum napellus)-all parts

Woodbine (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)-sap

Woodrose (Ipomoea, Merremia tuberosa)

Woody nightshade (Celastrus, dulcamera)-berries

Y

Yam bean-roots, immature pods

Yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria)-berries

Yellow knapweed (Centaurea solstitialis)

Yellow jasmine (Gelsemium sempervirens)-whole plant

Yellow oleander-all parts, esp. kernels of fruit

Yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis)

Yerba-depasmo (Baccharis sp.)

Yew ( Taxus spp.)-foliage, twigs, berries

NOSE TO TAIL-Uses For Every Part Of The Domestic Rabbit

I am a big fan of using every part of an animal. It’s not so much about frugality but that I feel a need to not waste anything and respecting the animal we raise and eat. It is sometimes a challenge to figure out what to do with a whole animal and using all its parts.

I have found that learning how to butcher and use all the parts of a rabbit is a good way to start. Rabbit is the best livestock to begin with butchering! It is usually easy to find readily available, small enough to handle, and its anatomy scales up to the anatomy of a pig, lamb, or goat. If you can butcher a rabbit, you can butcher the bigger animals, too! The cuts are very much the same, just a easier to handle.

I make many different dishes out of my rabbits, it is a tasty way to use the entire animal. The front legs  make great buffalo wings for a great appetizers,  the bones, head and ribs can be boiled for stock, and the rest of the rabbit can be roasted, baked, braised, and barbequed. There is SO much you can do with rabbit!

From a Green standpoint, if you look at the amount of land, food, and time it takes to raise large animals like lamb, pigs, cows, and goats you see that rabbit is a easy sustainable item that’s healthy, versatile, and not expensive, especially when you buy it whole or raise it yourself.

Here are the uses I have found for The Nose To Tail for the rabbit-

The rabbit head and brains are eaten in many countrys, and there are many recipes using both. For example Rabbit Head Pasta http://fxcuisine.com/default.asp?language=2&Display=159&resolution=print and Spicy Sichuan Rabbit Head http://showshanti.com/eating-rabbit-head-tu-tou/, are just a few, but heads are traditionally used in stews and stocks. Dog owners feeding their pets a raw food diet say their dogs love the heads and I have also seen them fed to pigs. The head can be crushed and fed to the chickens, the blood, bones, and meat is considered good for the laying hen, and blood mixed in the mash can be used for the same purpose. In Europe rabbits are sold with the head on, this is cooked or used for soup stock.

The brains can also be used for brain tanning the pelt. It is said that the size of every animals brain is enough to tan that animal’s pelt.

The ears of the rabbit can be dehydrated and used for dogs treats. My dogs LOVE these. There are also recipes for rabbit ears, such as deep-fried rabbit ears served with an apricot ginger chutney sauce. http://www.hungryinhogtown.com/hungry_in_hogtown/2007/03/earresistible_e.html

The pelts of the rabbit can be used to make blankets, hats, and many other assorted clothing to keep warm or as a added fur fringe to clothing for a fancy look. https://riseandshinerabbitry.com/2012/01/22/tanning-rabbit-pelts/

The bones, heads, and ribs can be boiled and used to make a great tasting stock and rabbit gravy. http://stefangourmet.com/2013/10/27/rabbit-stock/                                    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1hI-MrT2OOc

The heart, kidneys, and livers are very nutritious and tasty, to eat alone or used in a rabbit pot pie, or for stuffing and sausage, there are also lots of recipe’s available for these.

The Lungs though fine for human consumption, no chef, or farmer we spoke with had heard of using rabbit lungs in cuisine. But I have dried them with the ears, and sometimes the liver (cut into pieces to be dried) for dog treats! Or you could just feed them fresh to your dogs.

The blood of the rabbit can be used to make blood sausage, and blood pudding. http://www.backwoodsbound.com/zrabbit14.html  Rabbit Blood Pudding Recipe

Rabbit blood can be used to thicken sauces and make charcuterie. If you do not want to eat the blood you can mix it with sawdust and it makes a great soil additive or add to the compost. You can also mix the blood in chicken feed for that extra protein.

 

The offal guts and other left over butchering scraps can be fed to dogs, cats, pigs, or also put in the compost pile.

Rabbit offal (the guts, internal organs, and non-flesh soft parts) are prized food in some cultures. They can be ground with a household meat grinder and used to make sausage, haggis, pate’, or other tasty tidbits.

My first choice for anything I am not going to use is to feed to carnivores. Most zoos, fur farms, hunters or even your own pets will happily take it off your hands. A pig would probably eat it. My Muscovy ducks and chickens will run to the offal piles at butchering time trying to get some scraps!

If you have a lake, pond or even raising fish in a aquaponics setup a good second choice is to put the offal in wire baskets above the surface of the water. The insects will eat the offal, then they themselves or their maggots fall into the water and feed your fish or crawfish. You could do this and collect the maggots and feed them to your chickens. You may want to do this away from the house as this will stink!http://www.themodernhomestead.us/article/feeding-chickens-maggots.html

Third choice is your compost pile with some management insect nuisance, odor, and animal attraction is no problem. The problem with rabbit parts is that they decompose slowly. The moisture and the heat of a compost pile works well for the breakdown of vegetable matter, but in the case of animal parts it can attract maggots! Because of this slow decomposition this can also offers a place for unhealthy bacteria and rodents. By tossing a handful or two of lime on the rabbit parts this will help speed the decomposition. Cover the rabbit parts with a good amount of sawdust or shavings. Then compact this down tightly. This will reduce the odors. Have strong, tall sides to your compost pile (I use pallets) and cover the top with a tarp. This is further protection against animals getting into your pile. So the next time you have rabbit products to dispose of, use your compost heap.

The rabbit feet can be used with the offal or made into lucky rabbits feet by drying and adding some beads or other decorative items for some really cool looking charms. You can make these by putting some 70% isopropyl rubbing alcohol in a small jar with the rabbits feet completely submerged in the alcohol, soak for 2 days this will lock in the fur. It also dehydrates the cells and kills bacteria and fungus. After the 2 days take out and rinse with water, you will need some borax this can be found in the laundry sections in most grocery stores. Using another jar or you may empty, rinse, and dry the jar you used earlier. Now mix some borax and water to about a 15 to1 mix use hot water as it will help the borax to dissolve. The borax will help to dehydrate skin and tissue helping to preserve the foot, also has antibacterial and antifungal properties. Make sure to submerge the feet in this mixture for one day. After one day in the borax mix I take out a put the feet in the sun to dry. Brush clean and you are ready to decorate with beads, and a end cap there are so many ways to dress up your new lucky charm. My wife dyes fiber with Kool Aid and white vinegar I want to try this with some of the white rabbits feet.

The rabbit’s tail has been used for many centuries for pollinating flowers, by attaching the tail to a stick and going from the male flower to the female flower transferring pollen in hoop houses and greenhouses. You could also use these as charms.

These are the uses I have found for using the rabbit from Nose To Tail, if you know of any more please let me know and I will add to this post!