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FEEDING RABBITS BLACK OIL SUNFLOWER SEEDS

Rabbits love black oil sunflower seeds (BOSS). They are a great winter tonic! I only feed BOSS to my rabbits in the cooler months, as it is a high calorie, high fat, “hot” feed. So it keeps them warm and shiny, great for a dry winter coat. This helps by putting the oil back into their coats.

I am talking about the black oil sunflower seeds, not the striped seeds. The striped seeds have thicker, tougher hulls. Black oil seeds have thinner shells and are more nutritious. Black oil sunflower seeds contain high levels of protein are rich in vitamin E, linoleic acid and provide a good source of fiber. Rabbits benefit from this snack seed as a high source of energy during cold temperatures.

I do not recommend using BOSS during the heat of the summer (June, July, and August here in Maine, it may be longer in your area). I feel that if fed during hot weather it will make them shed more and could cause gut troubles by hair blockage. But if you have a rabbit that is stuck in a molt, then this is a great additive to add to your rabbits diet. By adding the extra calories and protein this will get them to blow their coat and get in new growth. If rabbits are overfed BOSS or fed to often this can also trigger a molt so feed in moderation. This is used as a tonic not a feed!

Her are the general nutritional components of black oil sunflower seeds, I also listed some of the benefits of each next to the item

28 percent fat – Fat in a rabbits diet functions as an energy source, aids in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K). It also adds luster and gloss to the fur and helps slow shedding.

25 percent fiber – This helps provide the bulk and forage requirements for a rabbit and also promoting a healthy gut.

15 percent protein – Protein is need for the growth, disease resistance, milk production, general health and reproduction.

Calcium – Calcium plays a key role in bodily processes, such as heart function, muscle contraction, coagulation, and electrolyte levels in the blood. But you do not want excess calcium in a rabbits diet as this can cause urinary tract problems.

B vitamins- A rabbit produces its own b vitamin by bacteria in the hind-gut of the rabbit, their requirements are fulfilled through caecotrophy. So B is not very important to a domestic rabbit.

Iron-

Vitamin E – helps to remove toxins out of your rabbit’s body this helps to maintain the immune system.

Potassium- Rabbit need this when they’re sick as they lose potassium through watery feces.

Feeding rabbits BOSS- Rabbits should only be fed BOSS as condition mix or tonic treat, 6 seeds per a rabbit top dressed in the feed hopper or crock is enough! DO NOT OVERFEED! You do not want fat lazy rabbits. Feed with the hulls on this is a good added fiber for the rabbits digestive track. Some show breeders feed BOSS as a daily conditioner one week before a show. I do not think you should add them to a bulk bag of feed because you will not be able to control the amount of BOSS each of your rabbits consumes. Black oil sunflower seeds are not a complete source of nutrition for your rabbit, offering only a few necessary nutrients your rabbit needs. These should only be offered as part of a rabbit’s diet, not the sole source of nutrition.

Vitamins A and E are vulnerable to poor or prolonged storage in feeds. Both of these vitamins are needed for the willingness and ability of rabbits to breed. Instead of increasing the pellets, I suggest feeding about a tablespoon of black oil sunflower seeds for Vitamin E and a good handful of dark leafy greens (dandelions, plantain, raspberry,and Kale are fine) for Vitamin A. If the rabbits have never had greens, start with just a couple of leaves and work up to more to help with those unwilling does.

One of the things I like about the BOSS is that even rabbits who are “off their feed” will nibble at them. When I got my first Angoras many years ago I tried adding BOSS to their diet and the results could be noticed by coat growth and quality, I can only assume it is from more protein-rich foods. Coat growth in Angoras or any wool breed uses a lot of protein to keep the fiber growing having a little extra to burn is making their fiber thick, dense, and soft.

PROS- They are packed with nutrition, amino acids, and calories, so they are a great supplement for almost any rabbit to one degree or another. They do help with shiny coats also. The side benefit is the volunteer sunflowers that sprout. I grew some out this summer (Will be growing a plot of the in 2013) and saved the seed heads, then pulled the plant and gave it to the rabbits as a green treat in the cages. They would not only eat the leaves, but they would gnaw the stems until it was all gone!

CONS- Not to many, but possibly too high in protein and calories, which could cause heat issues during summer months. If fed too much too often maybe some weight gain, and molting problems. I believe the positives of BOSS out weight the negatives. Definitely feed with shells as they add necessary fiber and are easy to chew through for rabbits. Black oil sunflower seeds often stimulate your rabbit to gain weight due to their high fat content. This extra body weight helps rabbits maintain their body temperature in the winter, fall, and spring months. Your rabbit may not need to maintain as much body heat in the summer months, so consider cutting back the amount of black oil sunflower seeds your rabbit consumes during those months.

Hope this answers any question on feeding BOSS to your rabbits. If anyone has other ideas or question please post in the comment section. Will be working on a conditioning mix post for rabbits and BOSS is in to that mix. Also if there are any requests for new post and ideas, email me and let me know! JOIN THE RABBIT REVOLUTION! Like Us On Facebook, and subscribe to the web page to get updates as the are posted.

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MEDICINAL HERBS FOR RABBITS

Wild rabbits not only eat a healthy diet of fresh grass, but they also have access to a wide variety of wild plants which they can eat to balance out their diet and keep themselves healthy. When we keep rabbits in captivity we remove them from both their natural diet and the herbs they would naturally eat if they were feeling sick and need to self medicate. Providing rabbits with a range of herbs and greens that they can choose to eat, or refuse, gives them the opportunity to balance their own diet according to their natural instincts. Rabbit are ideal patient for herbal medicines because they are herbivores and eat their herbal medicine treats with enthusiasm!

One of the most important daily chore in your quest for raising rabbits is observation. Daily observation can easily detect illness or disease in your rabbits that can be found early and contained before all of the rabbits are affected. While you do your daily chores, simply stop, look, and listen. Stand quietly or listen carefully while you do your chores. You’re listening for sneezing, coughing, or labored breathing. A few sneezes here and there are common and normal. A rabbit that sneezes repeatedly needs closer attention. Look closely at the face and ears of your rabbits. Ears should be clean and free of mites. Mites will cause the ears to fill with yellowish nasty crust. It is very simple to treat but only if you know notice it. Noses and eyes should be clear and free of discharge. It only takes a few minutes longer doing your chores to check your rabbits daily for illness. This will also save you lots of time treating when prevention or cure is simple. The number one to keep you rabbits healthy is observation

I believe that most of the health problems rabbits have are brought on by an imbalance in their immune systems that allows the bacterial and parasitic disease to get a hold in the rabbits system. The best herb I believe for balancing the rabbits immune system is Echinacea it can be grown in any backyard and is available in most health food stores.

There are some preventive measures that will help you in your quest of raising rabbits, these will save you from many troubles. sanitation Keep cages clean, wire brush any dropping that get stuck and clean cages thoroughly between litters. Clean cages mean clean rabbits! I have never seen a rabbit die from good sanitation practices. Ventilation- air should be moving to keep fresh air to your rabbits if it smells to you it smells worse to the rabbits. Apple Cider Vinegar- Use as an additive to their daily water giving it continuously or in 3 month cycles (3on, 3off, 3on,etc.). Dosage: Add 1 to 2 tablespoons of ACV to a gallon of water. I have an earlier post in the January archives with lots of good information on Apple Cider Vinegar For Rabbits check it out. Grapefruit Seed Extract- 5 to 10 drops GSE to 1 gallon water 2 times a year for 2 weeks as a preventive wormer (I also use this when I get a new rabbit while the rabbit is in quarantine “just in case”). Echinacea- I use a few of the stems and leaves on top of their daily food as a preventive immune system booster. There are more but these are the best preventive measures I have found and use.

I know that pure breeds are more prone to suffer illness than the crossed breeds. This is mainly because of breeders trying to perfect a breed, in most cases the breeders do not take into consideration health risks, and inbreeding, to achieve the perfect rabbit. I have never have had any trouble with my crossbred meat rabbits. They seen to have a natural preventive built-in with the hybrid vigor! More on crossing rabbits to come!

Here are a few herbs and what they are recommended for. Most of these I have used on my rabbits. These are listed in order by herb name. Natural remedies work great for small ailments. I have seen the effects for treating GI problems, Nest box eye, Diarrhea, ear mites, etc. with natural means work. You should ALWAYS be feeding lots of good grass hay, tonic weeds like plantain and dandelion, raspberry, blackberry, strawberry leaves, willow twigs and leaves if they are available. These things will contribute to your rabbits’ good health, but they are not cure-alls. Just a reminder that seeds purchased for planting are not safe for rabbits. Most of them have been treated with fungicides etc. Stick to seeds purchased as feed or ones you have harvested yourself.

BIRCH – Chewing, pain relief, anti-inflammatory, diuretic.

BLACK OIL SUNFLOWER SEEDS – Coat Condition

BLACKBERRY – Used for pregnant does, summer cooling, stimulate appetite, diarrhea and safe introductory green for young kits use leaves and fruit,this is a very soothing to rabbits and can help cool rabbits in the summer heat by increasing circulation, awsome addition for pregnant does in the hot summer

BLUE COHOSH- Works in the same ways as Shepard’s Purse. It can be used if doe has a hard time birthing or kit gets stuck. It will dilate the birth canal. Do not give while pregnant, wait until doe is due. It will induce labor. Also it will help in healing once kits are born.

BORAGE – Laxative, Increases milk flow of nursing does, helps with fevers, reduces stress, A great treat after a doe gives birth,plus you can check her litter while she is busy eating her treat

CHAMOMILE – Pain relief, calm nervous rabbit, one of the best eye wash for weepy eye Chamomile tea and honey!!!!! Just make a cup of tea, a little stronger than you would drink it and add a teaspoon of honey. I use an old syringe w/o the needle to squirt into the eye. You can also use as a compress and as a wipe for the eye. It will work wonders. Both chamomile and honey are anti-everything! microbial, fungal, and with antibiotic properties. Let the rabbit eat some before you treat for eye problems because of its pain relief and calming effects will make the rabbit easier to handle

CHICKWEED – Anti-inflammatory, healing of cuts, molt

CLEAVERS – Healing of cuts, laxative

COLTSFOOT – Respiratory expectorant

COMFREY – Healing, bone formation, ill rabbits, stressed and weak rabbits, if you have a rabbit off feed try a few leaves of comfrey this is one of my favorite herb tonic for rabbits! You can cut it down and dry it like hay to store for winter use (can be cut down up to three times here in Maine) They also love the freshly harvested leaves(I have never wilted it) . The plant has a calming effect on rabbits Comfrey is a good source of vitamin A and good for pregnant and nursing does. It is a digestive aid, helps with wool block and is used for many other things. It supports the immune system, good for the stomach, feed as a general tonic. In extreme doses, comfrey can cause diarrhea. This is its effects working too hard and if left unnoticed, the rabbit may dehydrate. When used with common sense, Comfrey is one of the best herbs for rabbits.

DANDELION – Blood purifying, respiratory ailments, anti-inflammatory, bladder infections, diarrhea, milk flow of nursing does, good treat for does after having a litter. Some rabbit respiratory problems, such as pasteurellosis, can eventually cause serious problems including head tilt, loss of balance and death. There have been tests on rabbits that were treated with dandelion’s showing that it is effective against pneumonia, bronchitis and upper respiratory infections. Use fresh leaves, flowers and dig up root, the root can be dried to make a weak tea to add to the rabbits water. Well known for its curative powers. The bitter milky sap stimulates the working of all glands, including the milk glands of lactating does. The plant has both laxative and astringent qualities and regulates constipation and diarrhea.

ECHINACEA -Immune system stimulant and broad spectrum antibiotic. In the lower doses it’s the stimulant and in higher doses acts as an antibiotic. Anti-inflammatory with anti-viral properties. It can be grown in nearly every backyard and easily available at most health food stores. Echinacea is a great preventive herb to use for your rabbits. I feed a few leaves every now a then to my rabbits daily greens mix to boost the immune system and fight infection. Research has shown that echinacea increases production of interferon in the body. It is antiseptic and antimicrobial, with properties that act to increase the number of white blood cells available to destroy bacteria and slow the spread of infection. It is also a great herb to dry and add to your winter hay blend! You can also get the capsules at heath food stores add 4 capsules of the echinacea to one gallon of water and boil and cool store in fridge and add 1/4 herb water to 3/4 water and fill water bottles, crocks, ect,

ELDER FLOWER – Respiratory expectorant, fevers

EUCALYPTUS – Dried and powdered, and sprinkled repel fleas

EYEBRIGHT – Weepy eye wash

FENNEL – Bloating, gas, milk flow of nursing does

GARLIC – Immunize against disease, antiseptic, antibiotic, bloating and gas, wormer, respiratory expectorant. This stuff works it is just hard to get a rabbit to eat it!

GINGER – Infertility in bucks

GOATS RUE – Milk flow in nursing does

GOLDEN ROD – Anti-inflammatory

GRAPEFRUIT SEED EXTRACT- As for worming rabbits, grapefruit seed extract does the job well and is all natural. 10 drops in a gallon of water for 2 weeks..or longer if there is a known bad problem. This also helps to worm them and along with raw pumpkin seeds this mix should clean out your rabbits. I regularly run grapefruit seed extract through their water at least 2 times a year with a few raw pumpkin seeds on top of their food and have never had a problem with coccidiosis. I also use it when I bring in new stock this has many uses as a bactericide, fungicide, anti viral, anti parasitic

LAMBS QUARTERS- Another good wormer for rabbits I only feed lamb’s quarters only when it is young rabbits will reject it as it gets older. In spring it is very useful because it starts early when greens are a bit limited

LAVENDER – Circulation problems, nervous stress, exhaustion, induces labor. To bring on labour or expel placental material etc. in problem kindling’s. Use with caution. sparingly. in extreme cases only. The flowers are actually a mild tranquilizer, acting upon the heart in easing blood pressure rather than acting upon the brain as an anti-stimulant. Great for stressed out rabbits.

LEMON BALM – Anti-bacterial, antiviral, bloating and gas, diarrhea, reduce stress

LICORICE – Good for gastric inflammation and coughs.

LINSEED – Laxative, helps with molting

MARIGOLD – Bruises, slowly healing wounds, ulcers, skin diseases, digestive problems

MARJORIM – Coughs, inflammation of mouth, throat. Digestive problems, uterine discomfort, calm nerves

MEADOWSWEET – Weepy eye wash

MILK THISLTE – Helps take ammonia from the blood and protects both the liver and the kidneys, increases milk flow in nursing does

MINT – Firms loose stools, decreases the milk flow of does during weaning, Good herb for treating mastitis. Safe as food for dry does and bucks DO NOT FEED to lactitating does. Used for colds, eye inflammation, liver stimulant, and used to relax the muscles of the digestive tract and stimulate bile flow so mint is useful for indigestion, gas and colic. Avoid prolonged use, it can irritate the mucous membranes. Do not give any form of mint to young babies. Should be harvested just before flowering.

MOTHER WART – Weepy eye wash

NASTURTIUM – Strongly antiseptic.

NETTLES – Increases milk flow in nursing does

OATS – Feed sparingly in summer though. Good for digestive problems, diarrhea, kidney and bladder problems. Small kits may not be able to swallow oats and may actually choke on them.

PARSLEY – Enriches the blood, urinary problems. Roots are used for constipation and obstruction of the intestines. Good for the cure of inflammation of bladder & kidneys, digestive disorders, fertility in bucks, productivity in does

PAPAYA- When I used to raise angoras (Still have some fiber males) I would give them a papaya enzyme tablet every couple of days to help keep them from getting wool block. We always have had healthy rabbits. The enzyme helps to break down the hair in the gut, and keep things moving. I have also given them to the meat rabbits. The rabbits love them, You can get the tablets at most health food stores.

PINEAPPLE- Bromelain, the actual enzyme in the pineapple, is most abundant in the stem of the pineapple, the center part that we throw away. Fresh pineapple are best as the enzyme will be removed once frozen or processed. Bromelain is good for diarrhoea. It will reduce intestinal fluid secretion and is suggested that bromelain has mucolytic and digestive properties. So it’ll dilate the mucus coating of the GI tract as well as helping to breakdown proteins good for gut mobility and helping with hairballs good to give to rabbits during a molt

PLANTAIN – antimicrobial, antispasmodic, healing of cuts, respiratory expectorant, fevers. Great as a safe introduction of young kits to greens, works great for diarrhea. This is something I feed in my daily green feed mix. Leaves soothe urinary tract infections and irritations. Good for gastric inflammations. Juice pressed from fresh leaves is given orally for inflamed mucous membranes in cystitis, diarrhea and lung infections. Use the juice for inflammations, sores, and wounds. Plantain does not cause digestive problems. The plant regulates the function of the intestines and is generally good for the mucous membranes. Useful in the diet of weanling’s and can be harvested and dried for year round use.

PURSLANE- Purslane contains more Omega-3 fatty acids than any other leafy vegetable plant know of. There was a study where they fed Purslane to rabbits with high cholesterol and it lowered it.

RASPBERRY – Prevention and treatment of kindling problems like retained afterbirth. Improves condition during pregnancy, ensuring speedy and strong birth. Feed during the last two weeks of pregnancy as a great preventive prenatal supplement. Also wonderful cure for digestive ailments including diarrhea, infertility in bucks, fevers. and a safe introductory green for young kits

RED CLOVER – weepy eye

ROSEMARY – Lowers blood pressure, Ideal for exhaustion, weakness, and depression in rabbits. The stems and leaves invigorate the circulation, stimulate the digestion, and are good for cold conditions. Harvest fresh dry or grow inside for year-round use.

SAGE – dried and powdered, and sprinkled repel fleas, dry up does who’s kits have been weaned. Reduces lactation when weaning, digestive stimulant and a uterine stimulant. This herb should be used with caution and should be avoided during pregnancy.

SASSAFRASS – dried and powdered, and sprinkled repel fleas

SCOTCH PINE – bronchitis, sinusitis, neuralgia, rheumatism.

SHEPHERDS PURSE – Uterine disorders, A strong medicine for diarrhea. Use sparingly.

SORREL – Very cooling and soothing, it is a much cherished treat in the summer.

STRAWBERRY – Whole plant is antiseptic and cooling. Leaves are rich in iron and are supposed to prevent miscarriage. Externally used for inflamed areas, rashes and sore eyes.

THYME – Good for diarrhea The stems and leaves are ideal for a useful as a digestive remedy, warming for stomach ache, chills and associated diarrhea. Expels worms. Harvest before and during flowering in summer discard the woody stems

WILLOW – Intestinal inflammation. Willow twigs and leaves. Useful winter food, easily gathered and stored. Also a pain-reliever and possible natural coccidiostat.

If while treating your rabbits or at any other time your rabbits stools are soft and sticky, a temporary change of diet can be beneficial. Remove the pellets and grain, feed grass hay and some of the beneficial plants. These plants will aid in firming the stools but they are also part of a healthy diet and will not cause constipation. You do not want your rabbits to go from one extreme to the other. The four best plants for this are plantain, raspberry leaves, blackberry leaves and strawberry leaves. All these are useful plants for a food source as well as a medicinal. You don’t need to worry about feeding too many. These are also good plants to dry and add to your winter hay blend! A combination of any of these and the grass hay will usually solve the problem within a few days.

On the other hand, if a rabbit is exhibiting watery stools rather than merely soft, a stronger medicine may be needed. The dietary restrictions should be the same, but shepherd’s purse can be added to the greens listed above. Shepherd’s purse is an excellent medicinal plant, but it is very strong and you don’t want to feed too much. A small handful of leaves and stems twice a day for three or four days should fix things. As the rabbit is getting better, reduce the amount of shepherds purse and then stop but feed the greens listed above and grass hay for another day or two. Reintroduce grains or pellets slowly.

EAR MITES-(EAR CANKER)- Any type of food grade oil may be used- olive oil, corn oil, almond oil, ect. A few drops of tea tree oil mixed in to any of the oils listed will help the healing process the oil serves 3 purposes -soothes the skin, smothers and suffocates the mites, and speeds the healing process. Put 6 or 7 drops in each ear massaging the base of the ear to saturate the inner ear completely. The rabbit will shake out the nasty stuff after a few treatments. Treat for the first 2 days than every other day for 14 days after this, 2 times a week for the next 2 weeks ear mites have a 28 day life cycle so you must treat up to the 28 days to make sure all the mites are killed. I make a mix of mineral oil with a few drops of apple cider vinegar, 5 or 6 drops of camphor oil and rosemary oil in the store bought mineral oil container and use a few drops in each ear as a preventive when I trim the rabbits nails.

EYE INFECTION / WEEPY EYES- Eye problems are not uncommon in rabbits, dirt or other debris can get lodged in a tear duct(happens more often to kits in the nestbox) and if not washed out can cause a bacterial infection wash with saline or any human eye wash(remember they have all probably been tested or rabbits at some point)take a few drop of tea tree oil and smeared it around the inflamed area tea tree oil is a natural antiseptic and is very good at curing microbial infections. See CHAMOMILE above for more info

GI PROBLEMS- Rabbits need a high fiber diet for their best intestinal health. Grass hay is great for the healthy movement in the rabbits digestive track. If a rabbit is not eating there is a problem! If their poop pellets get small and dry or none at all it is a sign of wool block or GI stasis. You have to get the gastric tract moving again. Get some 100% canned pumpkin NOT the canned pumpkin pie filling (it has spices in it the will hurt your rabbits) Suck some up in a big syringe (remove the needle). Then put the plastic tip of the syringe into the side of the rabbits mouth and very slowly squeeze some out a little at a time give about 2 teaspoons for each dose wait about 3 hours and do it again you can give it 4 to 6 times a day every day until they start eating and pooping. Slippery elm bark in its shredded bark form fed to rabbits should help with GI problems if the rabbits will not eat it grind some up as a powdered form in its water mix 1 teaspoon in the drinking water 3 to 4 time a day. I have always had good luck feeding a few comfrey leaves and in a few days they are back on the regular feed schedule

KIDNEY OR BLADDER PROBLEMS- Any diuretic that will increase urine flow is good for the urinary tract in rabbits. This helps to keep bladder sludge down(caused from high calcuim intake). Dandelion root tea in the water with cranberry treats several time a week will help with any problems.The cranberry prevents bacteria from attaching to the wall of the bladder so it get washed out with the urine.

PREGENCY TONIC- Combine the following- dried, raspberry leaf, nettle, and goats rue (Galega officinale) in equal parts, and half part Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum). All organic either grow your own or get it from a health food store
Feed: 1 Tbs. per day at feeding time, to pregnant Does beginning one week before kindling through the first month. These herbs help ease kindling, offer nutrition and support lactation. Just sprinkle 1 Tbs. over their food, once a day.

If I have missed anything let me know I would be glad to add it to this post! Some of this information I have gotten from other sources online or old rabbit books. I have used most of these herbs on my rabbits over the last 30 years, use with caution and know what you are feeding your rabbits. Hope you enjoyed this post! Check us out on Facebook for daily rabbit information! JOIN THE RABBIT REVOLUTION by subscribing to our blog feed to get the new posts as they are added! Check out the podcast section of the blog page! Will be doing more podcasts in the future lots of good information!

SAFE FOOD LIST FOR RABBITS

Safe Food for Rabbits-
This is as comprehensive a list as I can come up with, I may have left a few things out and would be happy to hear from you, i will add them and will post comments to this page! The names given are the common names, and I’ve given all the ones I know. However it is not a guide to the nutritional value of these foods and as always when starting rabbits on a natural feeding program go slow so the gut flora can adapt to the new feeds you are feeding your rabbits.
RABBIT SAFE FRUIT-
(Feed very, very sparingly… Super sugary! Up to 2 tbsp daily) :
Apple (NO core or anything containing seeds, unless all seeds removed)
Apricots (NO PITS)
Banana (fruit and peel)
Blackberry (stem, leaf and fruit)
Blueberries
Carambola
Cherry (NO PITS)
Cranberry
Currant (black and red)
Cucumber
Grapes (fruit, leaf and vine are edible)
Huckleberry
Kiwi Fruit
Mango
Nectarine
Orange (NO PEEL- segments only)
Melon (all melons)
Papaya (NO SEEDS)
Peach (NO PITS)
Pear
Pineapple
Plum (NO PITS)
Raspberries (twigs, and leaves – astringent)
Rose hip
Starfruit
Strawberries (and leaves)
Tomato (red fruit ONLY; no stems or leaves)
Tangerine (NO PEEL – segments only)
Watermelon

RABBIT SAFE VEGETABLES-
Alfalfa Sprouts
Artichoke Leaves
Arugula
Asparagus
Baby Sweet Corns (like in stirfry)***
Beet Greens
Beetroot
Bell Peppers (green, yellow, red, orange…)
Bok Choy/Pak Choy
Carrot Greens (tops)
Carrot (limited amount, due to high sugar content)
Celeriac
Celery (cut into small pieces to limit choking on strings)
Cucumber
Chard
Chicory Greens (aka Italian Dandelion… see discussion here )
Clover (WHITE only)
Collard Greens (be cautious, may cause bladder sludge (high calcium)
Dandelion Greens (no pesticides)
Eggplant (purple fruit only; leaves toxic)
Endive
Escarole
Grass (if cut from your own chemical/fertilizer/poison free back yard-I spread it out and dry it)
Kale
Lettuce (Dark Green/Red Leaf, Butter, Boston, Bibb, or Romaine – NO ICEBERG [no
nutritional value, may cause diarrhea])
Mustard Spinach
Nappa/Chinese Cabbage
Okra Leaves
Pak Choy/Bok Choy
Pumpkin
Radicchio
Radish tops (Limited amounts: can cause gas)
Raspberry Leaves
Rhubarb (RED STALKS ONLY – POISONOUS LEAF)
Squash: Yellow, Butternut, Pumpkin, Zucchini
Swiss Chard
Turnip Greens
Watercress
Wheat Grass
Zucchini

SAFE IN MODERATION:
Broccoli
Brussels Sprouts
Cabbage
Cauliflower
Kale
Mustard Greens
Spinach

SAFE FOODS:
Agrimony
Alfalfa
Apple
Avens
Balm
Banana
Barley
Basil
Beetroot
Blackberry
Borage
Broccoli
Buckwheat
Burnet
Camomile
Caraway
Carrot
Celery
Celeriac
Chervil
Chicory
Chickweed
Chinese leaf
Cleavers
Clover, WHITE
Coltsfoot
Comfrey-I feed fresh young leaves and also dry for winter tonic, but most breeders say they feed it slighty wilted
Coriander
Corn marigold
Corn spurrey
Cow parsnip
Crosswort
Cucumber
Dandelion
Dead-Nettles
Dill
Dock BEFORE FLOWERING
Endive
Fat hen
Fennel
Goosefoot
Goosegrass
Goutweed BEFORE FLOWERING
Ground elder BEFORE FLOWERING
Hawkbit
Hawkweed
Heather
Hedge parsley
Horseradish
Jerusalem artichoke
Knapweed
Knotgrass
Kohlrabi
Lavender
Lovage
Mallow
Marjoram
Mayweed
Maywort
Meadowsweet
Melon
Milk thistle
Mugwort
Nipplewort
Oats
Orache
Oxeye daisy
Parsley
Parsnip
Peas
Pear
Peppermint
Pigweed
Plantain
Pumpkin
Purslane
Radish GREENS
Raspberry
Sage
Savory
Sanfoin
Shepherd’s purse
Silverweed
Sow thistle
Soya
Strawberry
Swiss Chard
Tare
Tomatoes(fruit only leaves and stocks toxic!)
Trefoil
Vetch
Vine leaves
Watercress
Watermelon
Wheat
Yarrow

SAFE TREE AND SHRUB LEAVES-Should always feed only fresh young leaves:
Acacia
Apple
Beech
Birch
Blackberry
Cherry
Hazel
Horse Chestnut
Lime
Mountain Ash
Mulberry
Pear
Poplar (not black)
Raspberry
Strawberry

SAFE TWIGS-
Apple
Birch
Blackberry
Fir
Hazel
Hawthorn
Maple
Pear
Raspberry
Spruce
Willow

SAFE FLOWERS-
Aster
Daisy
Geranium
Geum
Helenium
Hollyhock
Honesty
Marguerite
Marigold
Michaelmas daisy
Nasturtium
Rose
Stock
Sunflower

SAFE HERBS-
Basil: Lemon, Globe, Thai, Mammoth, Sweet, Genevieve
Borage
Camomile
Caraway
Clover
Chervil
Comfrey
Coriander/Cilantro
Dill: Fernleaf, Mammoth
Fennel
Garden Cress
Groundsel
Lavender (Not for pregnant does; can cause fetal expulsion)
Lemon Balm
Lovage
Marjoram
Mint: Pineapple sage, pineapple mint, apple mint, orange mint, peppermint, lemon thyme, cinnamon basil, lime basil, lemon basil, sweet basil, licorice basil, “licorice mint” (anise hyssop), spearmint, peppermint, chocolate mint, and basil mint.
Oregano
Peppermint
Parsley: Curly and Flat-Leaf
Rosemary
Sage: Pineapple is quite good
Salad Burnet / Small Burnet
Summer Savory
Tarragon
Thyme

POISONOUS PLANTS TO RABBITS‏

Many plants listed here are not all poisonous, only parts of them are. Apple is a good example: the seeds are poisonous, but the fruit is perfectly fine for rabbits. Read the complete listing of the plant to get details regarding which parts to avoid. If no parts are listed, assume that the whole plant is poisonous and should not be in fed to your rabbit.

Acokanthera (Acokanthera)-fruit, flowers very poisonous

Aconite (Aconitum)-all parts very poisonous

African rue (Peganum harmala)

Agapanthus (Nerine bowdenii)

Aloe vera (Aloe vera)

Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum)

Amanita (Amanita)-all parts

Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)-bulbs

Amaryllis belladonna (Brunsvigia rosea)-bulbs

Anemone (Anemone sp.)

Angel trumpet tree (Datura, Brugmansia arborea)-flowers, leaves, seeds

Anthurium (Anthurium)

Apple (Malus sylvestris)-seeds contain cyanide

Apple leaf croton (Codiaeum variegatum)

Apricot (Prunus armeniaca)-pits contain cyanide

Arrowgrass (Triglochin sp.)

Arrowhead vine (Syngormon podophyllum)-oxalates

Asparagus fern (Asparagus sprengeri)

Atropa belladonna (Atropa belladonna)-all parts, esp. black berries

Autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale)-corms

Avocado (Persea americana)

Azalea (Rhododendron occidentale)-all parts fatal

B

Baccharis (Baccharis sp.)

Balsam (Impatiens balsamina)-whole plant

Balsam pear-seeds, outer rind of fruit

Baneberry (Actaea alba, rubra, spicata)-berries, roots, foliage

Beach pea (Lathyrus maritimus)

Beargrass (Nolina texana)

Beefsteak plant (Perilla frutescens)

Begonia (sand)

Belladonna, Atropa (Atropa belladonna)-all parts, esp. black berries

Belladonna lily (Brunsvigia rosea)-bulbs

Betel nut palm (Areca catechu)-all parts

Bird of paradise (Strelitzia poinciana)-seeds

Bird of paradise bush (Casesalpinia gilliesii)-seeds, pods

Bittersweet (Celastrus, dulcamera)-berries

Bitterweed (Hymenoxys odorata)

Black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger)

Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)-bark, sprouts, foliage

Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum)-leaves, berries

Black root

Bladderpod (Sesbania vesicarium)

Bleeding heart (Dicentra)-foliage, roots

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)

Bluebonnet (Lupinus spp.)-all parts

Blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)

Blue-green algae-some forms toxic

Bog Kalmia (Kalmia)

Boston ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata)

Bottlebrush (Callistemon)-flowers

Boxwood (Buxus sp.)-all parts

Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum)

Branching ivy (Hedera helix-Weber’s California)-all parts

Broomcorn (Sorghum vulgare)

Broomweed (Gutierrezia microcephala)

Buckeye (Aesculus)-sprouts, nuts

Buckthorn (Amsinckia intermedia)-fruit, bark

Bull nettle

Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)

Burroweed (Haplopappus heterophyllus)

Buttercup (Ranunculus sp.)-all parts

Butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa)

C

Cactus thorn

Caesalpinia (Poinciana)-seeds, pods

Caladium (Caladium portulanum)-all parts

Calico bush (Kalmia latifolia)-young leaves, shoots are fatal

California fern (Conium maculatum)-all parts are fatal

California geranium (Senecio petasitis)-whole plant

California holly (Heteromeles arbutifolia)-leaves

Calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopiea, Calla palustris)-all Parts

Candelabra cactus

Cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis)-all parts

Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus)-all parts

Carolina jessamine (Gelsemium)-whole plant

Carolina Laurel Cherry (Prunus caroliana)-all parts

Casava (Euphorbiacea)-roots, sap

Cassine (Ilex vomitoria)-berries

Castor bean (Ricinus communis)-seeds are fatal, leaves

Century plant (Agave americana)

Ceriman (Monstera deliciosa)

Chalice vine-all parts

Cherries, wild and cultivated-twigs and foliage are fatal, bark, pits

Cherry, Jerusalem (Solanium nigrum/eleagnifolium/ pseudocapsicum)-fruits, leaves

Cherry laurel (Prunus var.)-all parts are fatal

Cherry, Natal (Solamon)-berries

Chestnut, Horse (Aesculus)-all parts

Chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach)-berries

Chokecherry (Prunus serotina)-withered leaves

Christmas berry (Heteromeles arbutifolia)-leaves

Christmas candle-sap

Christmas rose (Helleborus niger)-all parts, esp. leaves

Cineraria (Senecio hybridus)-whole plant

Clematis (Clematis)

Cloak fern (Notholaena sinuata var cochisensis)

Clover, Alsike (Trifolium hybridum)

Cocklebur (Xanthium sp.)

Coffeebean (Sesbania drummondii)

Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)

Colorado rubberweed (Hymenoxys richardsonii)

Columbine (Aquilegia)-all parts

Common privet (Ligustrum)-all parts

Coral berry (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus)-seeds

Coral plant (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus)-seeds

Cordatum (Philodendron oxycardium)

Corn cockle (Agrostemma githago)

Corn lily (Symplocarpus foetidus)-all parts

Corn plant (Dracaena fragrans massangeana)

Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster)

Covotillo (Karwinskia humboldtiana)-berries

Cowslip (Caltha palustris)

Crab’s eye (Abrus precatorius)-seeds are fatal

Creeping charlie, except houseplant (Glecoma, Nepeta hederacea)

Cress/Crucifers/Mustards (Cruciferae-Brassica Raphanus, Descurainia spp.)

Crocus (Crocus)-corms

Crocus, Autumn (Colchicum autumnale)-corms

Croton (Codiaeum variegatum, Euphorbiacea)

Crown-of-thorns (Euphorbia milli)-leaves, flowers

Crown vetch (Astragalus sp.)-all parts

Crow poison (Amianthium muscaetoxicum)

Crucifers/Cress/Mustards (Cruciferae-Brassica, Raphanus, Descurainia spp.)

Cuban laurel (Ficus spp.)

Cuckoopint (Arum maculatum)-all parts

Curcas bean-seeds, oil

Cutleaf philodendron (Monstera deliciosa)

Cycads (Cycas spp., Zamia spp.)

Cyclamen (Cyclamen sp.)

D

Daffodil (Narcissus)-bulbs may be fatal

Daisy (Chrysanthemum frutescens)

Daphne (Daphne mezereum)-berries are fatal

Datura (Brugmansia, all species)-all parts

Deadly amanita (Amanita)-all parts

Deadly nightshade (Solanum nigrum)-all parts, unripe fruit, foliage

Death-camas (Sygodenus venesii, Zygadenus nuttallii)-all parts poisonous, roots fatal

Death cup (Amanita phalloides)-all parts

Delphinium (Delphinium sp.)-all parts

Desert tobacco

Destroying angel (Amanita phalloides)-all parts

Devil’s ivy (Scindapsus aureus, Epipremnum aureum)

Devil’s tomato (Solanum eleagnifolium)-all parts

Dianthus (Dianthus)-all parts

Dieffenbachia (Dieffenbachia)-all parts, esp. sap

Dogbane (Apocynum sp.)-leaves

Dogwood (Cornus)-fruit slightly poisonous

Doll’s Eyes (Actaea alba, rubra, spicata)-berries, roots, foliage

Dracaena palm (Dracaena sanderiana)

Dragon tree (Dracaena draco)

Drymary (Drymaria pachyphylla)

Dumb cane (Dieffenbachia amoena)-all parts, esp. sap

Durra (Sorghum vulgare)

Dutchman’s breeches (Dicentra)-foliage, roots

Dutchman’s pipe (Aristolochia durior)

E

Eggplant-all parts but fruit

Elaine (Codiaeum elaine)

Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis)-all parts

Elephant’s ear (Colocasia esculenta, Philodendron domesticum, Caladium hortulanum)-all parts

Emerald duke (Philodendron hastatum)

Emerald feather (Asparagus sprengeri)

English ivy (Hedera helix-ilex acid)-all parts

English laurel (Prunus laurocerasus)-all parts are fatal

Euonymus (Euonymus)

Euphorbia (Euphorbia sp.)-leaves, flowers, sap

Evening trumpet (Gelsemium sempervirens)-whole plant

Exotica perfection

Eyebane (Euphorbia maculata)

F

False henbane-all parts

False hellebore (Veratrum viride and other sp.)-all parts poisonous, root deadly

False parsley (Conium maculatum)-all parts are fatal

Fiddle-leaf fig (Ficus lyrata)

Fiddleneck (Amsinckia intermedia)-fruit, bark

Firecracker (Dichelostemma ida-maia)

Firethorn (Pyracantha sp.)

Fireweed (Amsinckia intermedia)-fruit, bark

Florida beauty (Dracaena spp.)

Fluffy ruffles

Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria)-whole plant

Fly poison (Amianthium muscaetoxicum)

Fool’s parsley (Conium maculatum)-all parts are fatal

Four o’clock (Mirabilis jalapa)-whole plant

Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)-all parts can be fatal

Foxwood

Frijolito (Sophora secundiflora)-all parts

Fruit salad plant (Philodendron pertusum)

G

Garden sorrel (Rumex acetosa)-oxalates

Gelsemium (Gelsemium)-whole plant

Geranium, California (Senecio petasitis)-whole plant

German ivy (Senecio mikanioides)-whole plant

Ghostweed (Euphorbia marginata)-all parts

Giant dumbcane (Dieffenbachia amoena)-all parts, esp. sap

Glacier ivy (Hedera helix Glacier)-all parts

Gladiola (Gladiolus sp.)

Glecoma hederacea (Nepeta hederacea)

Glory lily (Gloriosa sp.)

Goatweed (Hypericum perforatum)

Gold dieffenbachia-all parts, esp. sap

Gold dust dracaena (Dracaena godseffiana)

Goldenchain tree (Laburnum)-seeds, pods may be fatal

Golden pothos (Epipremnum aureus)

Gold-toothed aloe (Aloe nobilis)

Greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus)

Green-gold nephythytis (Syngonium podophyllum xanthophilum)

Ground ivy (Nepeta hederacea)

Groundsel (Crotalaria spp.)

Groundsel (Senecio sp.)-whole plant

Guajillo (Acacia berlandieri)

H

Halogeton (Halogeton glomeratus)

Hawaiian baby wood rose

Heart ivy (Hedera helix)-all parts

Heartleaf (Philodendron cordatum, Philodendron oxycardium)

Heavenly bamboo (Nandina domestica)-leaves

Hedge apples

Hellebore (Ranunculacea, Helleborus, Veratrum)-all parts

Hemlock (Conium, Cicuta, Tsuga)-all parts

Hemp, Indian (Cannabis sativa, Apocynum sp.)-leaves

Henbane, Black (Hyoscyamus niger)-all parts

Hogwort

Holly (Ilex aquifolium, opaca, vomitoria)-leaves, berries

Horsebrush (Tetradymia sp.)

Horsechestnut (Aesculus)-all parts

Horse-head (Philodendron oxycardium)

Horse nettle (Solanum carolinense)-all parts, esp. fruits, leaves

Horsetail reed (Equisetum sp.)-all parts

Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis)-bulbs can be fatal

Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla)-whole plant

I

Impatiens (Impatiens)-whole plant

Indian hemp (Apocynum cannabinum)-leaves

Indian laurel (Ficus retusa nitida)

Indian rubber plant (Ficus elastica Decora)

Indian tobacco (Nicotiana giauca) -all parts

Indian turnip (Arisaema triphyllum)-all parts

Indigo (Indigofera sp.)

Inkberry (Ilex glabra)-leaves, berries

Inkweed (Drymaria pachyphylla)

Iris (Iris sp.)-underground rhizome, leaves

Ivy (Hedera)-all parts

Ivy bush (Kalmia angustifolia)-leaves

J

Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum)-all parts

Jamestown weed (Datura, Brugmansia stramomium)-all parts

Jatropha-seeds, oil

Java bean (Phaseolus limensis)-uncooked bean

Jequirity bean (Abrus precatorius)-seeds are fatal

Jerusalem cherry (Solanium nigrum/eleagnifolium/ pseudocapsicum)-fruits, leaves

Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)-flowers, leaves, berries fatal

Jessamine, Carolina (Gelsemium)-flowers, leaves, seeds

Jessamine, Night-blooming (Cestrum nocturnum)

Jimmy fern (Notholaena sinuata var cochisensis)

Jimson weed (Datura, Brugmansia stramomium)-all parts

Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense)

Juniper (Juniperus)-needles, stems, berries

K

Kafir (Sorghum vulgare)

Klamath weed (Hypericum perforatum)

L

Lady slipper (Cypripedium spectabiles)-all parts

Lambkill (Kalmia angustifolia)-leaves

Lantana camara (Lantana camara)-green berries are fatal

Larkspur (Delphinium)-all parts, seeds may be fatal

Laurel, Cherry (Prunus caroliniana)-all parts are fatal

Laurel, Cuban (Ficus spp.)

Laurel, Indian (Ficus retusa nitida)

Lecheguilla (Agave lecheguilla)

Ligustrum (Ligustrum ovalifolium)-all parts

Lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis)-all parts, including water

Lima bean (Phaseolus limensis)-uncooked bean

Lobelia (Lobelia sp.)-all parts

Locoweed (Astragalus sp.)-all parts

Lords-and-ladies (Arum maculatum)-all parts

Lupine (Lupinus)-all parts

M

Machineel-all parts

Madagascar dragon tree (Dracaena marginata)

Majesty (Philodendron hastatum)

Mandrake (Podophyllum pellatum)-all parts

Marble queen (Scindapsus aureus)-oxalates

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa)-all parts

Marsh marigold (Primula veris)

Mayapple (Podophyllum pellatum)-all parts

Medicine plant (Aloe vera)

Mescal (Lophophora williamsii)-cactus tops

Mescal bean (Sophora secundiflora)-all parts

Mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa)

Mexican breadfruit (Monstera deliciosa)

Mexicantes

Milkvetch (Astragalus sp.)-all parts

Milkweed (Asclepias sp.)-all parts

Milo (Sorghum vulgare)

Miniature croton (Punctatis aureus)

Mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens)-berries are fatal

Moccasin flower (Cypripedium spectabiles)-all parts

Monkshood (Aconitum napellus)-all parts

Moonseed (Menispermum)-berries can be fatal

Morning glory (Ipomoea violacea)-all parts

Mother-in-law (Monstera deliciosa)

Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia)-young leaves, shoots are fatal

Mushroom

Mustards/Crucifers/Cress (Cruciferae-Brassica, Raphanus, Descurainia spp.)

N

Narcissus (Narcissus)-bulb can be fatal

Natal cherry (Solamon)-berries

Nephthytis (Syngonium podophyllum albolinea-tum)-oxalates

Needlepoint ivy (Hedera helix Needlepoint)-all parts

Nicotiana (Nicotiana)-wild, cultivated leaves

Night-blooming jessamine (Cestrum nocturnum)

Nightshade (Solanum carolinense)-all parts, esp. fruits, leaves

Nightshade (Solanum eleagnifolium)-all parts

O

Oaks (Quercus)-foliage, acorns

Oleander (Nerium oleander)-foliage, branches, nectar

Orange milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa)

Orange sneezeweed (Helenium hoopesii)

Ornamental tobacco (Nicotiana)-all parts

Oxalis (Oxalis)-oxalates

P

Palma christi (Ricinus communis)-seeds are fatal, leaves

Panda (Philodendron panduraeformae)

Paper flowers (Psilostrophe sp.)

Paradise plant

Parlor ivy (Philodendron elegans, Philodendron cordatum, Philodendron pertusum)

Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa)

Partridge breast (Aloe variegata)

Peach (Prunus persica)-pit contains cyanide

Pear (Pyrus communis)-seeds contains cyanide

Pear, Balsam-seeds, outer rind of fruit

Pencilbush (Euphorbia tirucalli)

Pencil cactus (Euphorbia tirucalli)

Peony (Paeonia sp.)-all parts

Peregrina-seeds, oil

Perill mint (Perilla frutescens)

Periwinkle (Vinca sp.)-whole plant

Peyote (Lophophora williamsii)-cactus tops

Philodendron (Philodendron)-leaves, stem, sap

Philodendron, Cutleaf (Monstera deliciosa)

Pigweed (Amaranthus spp.)-oxalates

Pingue (Hymenoxys richardsonii)

Pinks (Dianthus)-all parts

Plum (Prunus)-seeds contain cyanide

Plumosa fern (Asparagus plumosus)

Poinciana (Poinciana gillesii)-green seeds, pods

Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima)-leaves, sap are fatal, flowers

Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum)-all parts are fatal

Poison ivy (Rhus radicans)-all parts

Poison nut

Poison oak (Rhus, Toxicodendron diversilobium)-all parts

Poison parsnip (Cicuta maculata)-all parts, esp. root, are fatal

Poison sumac (Rhus vernix)-all parts

Pokeberry (Phytolacca americana)-roots

Pokeroot (Phytolacca americana)-roots

Poke salad (Phytolacca americana)-roots

Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana)-roots

Poppy, except California (Papaver)

Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis)

Pot mum (Chrysanthemum mortiforium)

Potato (Solanum tuberosum)-green parts are fatal, eyes

Pothos (Scindapsus aureus)-oxalates

Precatory bean (Abrus precatorius)-seeds are fatal

Prickly copperweed (Oxytenia acerosa)

Prickly poppy (Argemone)

Primrose (Primula spp.)

Primula (Primula spp.)

Privet (Ligustrum)-all parts

Purge nut-seeds, oil

Purple sesbane (Daubentonia punicea)

Psychic nut-seeds, oil

Pyracantha (Pyracantha sp.)

Q

Queen Anne’s Lace (Daucus carota)

R

Ranunculus (Ranunculus)-all parts

Rattlebox (Crotalaria spp., Daubentonia punicea)

Rattleweed (Crotalaria spp.)

Rayless goldenrod (Iscoma aerigum)

Red clover (Trifolium pratense)-hays when moldy

Red emerald (Philodendron red emerald)

Red-margined dracaena (Dracaena marginata)

Red princess (Philodendron hastatum)

Red sage (Lantana camara)-green berries are fatal

Rhododendron (Rhododendron)-all parts are fatal

Rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum)-leaves fatal

Ribbon plant (Dracaena sanderiana)

Ripple ivy (Hedera)-all parts

Rosary bean (Abrus precatorius)-seeds are fatal

Rosary pea (Abrus precatorius)-seeds are fatal

Rosebay (Rhododendron occidentale)-all parts fatal

Rosemary (Rosemarinus)-leaves of some varieties are poisonous

Rubber plant, Indian (Ficus elastica Decora)

Rum cherry (Prunus serotina)-withered leaves

S

Sacahuista (Nolina texana)

Saddle leaf philodendron (Philodendron selloum)

Sage (Salvia)-leaves of some varieties are poisonous

Sago palm (Cycas)

Sand begonia

Satin pothos (Scindapsus spp., Pothos wilcoxii)

Schefflera (Brassia actinophylla)

Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius)-seeds

Senecio (Senecio)-whole plant

Senna-bean (Sesbania drummondii)

Sesbane (Sesbania, Glottidium mesicaria)

Sesbane, Purple (Daubentonia punicea)

Shamrock plant (Oxalis acetosella)

Sheep laurel (Kalmia angustifolia)-leaves

Silverleaf (Solanum eleagnifolium)-all parts

Silverling (Baccharis sp.)

Silver pothos (Scindapsus aureus)-oxalates

Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus)-all parts

Slinkweed (Gutierrezia microcephala)

Snapdragon (Antirrhinum)-all parts

Snapweed (Impatiens)-whole plant

Sneezeweed, Orange (Helenium hoopesii)

Snowdrop (Galanthus)-all parts

Snow-on-the-mountain (Euphorbia marginata)-all parts

Solanum (Solanum)-berries

Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum multiflorum)

Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare)

Snake palm

Snakeroot, White (Eupatorium rugosum)

Snakeweed (Gutierrezia microcephala)

Sorrel, Garden (Rumex acetosa)-oxalates

Spathe flower (Spathiphyllum)

Spider mum (Chrysanthemum mortiforium)

Split-leaf philodendron (Monstera deliciosa, Philodendron pertusum)

Spotted dumb cane (Dieffenbachia)

Sprengeri fern (Asparagus sprengeri)

Spurge (Euphorbiaceae)-leaves, flowers

Squill (Scilla autumnalis)

Squirrel corn (Dicentra canadensis)-all parts

Staggergrass (Amianthium muscaetoxicum)

Star of Bethlehem (Ornithogalum umbellatum)-all parts

Stinkweed (Brugmansia)

St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum)

Stranomium-all parts

String of beads/pearls (Senecio rowleyanus)-whole plant

Striped dracaena (Dracaena deremensis)

Sudan grass (Sorghum vulgare)

Swamp laurel (Kalmia)

Sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus)-stems, seeds, fruit

Sweet William (Dianthus)-all parts

Swiss cheese plant (Monstera friedrichsthalii)

Sweetheart ivy (Hedera helix)-all parts

T

Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)-all parts

Tansy ragwort (Senecio sp.)-whole plant

Taro ( Colocasia esculenta)-stem, leaves

Taro vine (Scindapsus aureus)

Thorn apple (Datura, Brugmansia stramomium)-all parts

Tiger lily (Lilium tigrinum)-all parts

Toadstools

Tobacco ( Nicotiana giauca)-all parts

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-leaves, vines

Touch-me-not (Impatiens)-whole plant

Toyon ( Heteromeles arbutifolia)-leaves

Tree philodendron (Scindapsus aureus)

Tropic snow (Dieffenbachia amoena)-all parts, esp. sap

True aloe (Aloe vera)

Trumpet plant-all parts

Trumpet vine-all parts

Tullidora (Karwinskia humboldtiana)-berries

Tulip (Tulipa)-bulb

Turpentine weed (Gutierrezia microcephala)

U

Umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius)

V

Variegated philodendron (Scindapsus)

Venus flytrap (Dionaea)-all parts

Victoria regia

Violet (Viola odorata)-seeds

Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)-sap

W

Warneckei dracaena (Dracaena dermensis warneckei)

Water hemlock (Cicuta maculata)-all parts, esp. root, are fatal

White snakeroot (Eupatorium rugosum)

Wild black cherry (Prunus serotina)-withered leaves

Wild carrot (Daucus carota)

Wild cucumber

Wild jasmine (Cestrum nocturnum)

Wild parsnip

Wild pea (Crotalaria spp.)

Windflower (Anemone sp.)

Wisteria (Wisteria)-all parts

Wolfsbane (Aconitum napellus)-all parts

Woodbine (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)-sap

Woodrose (Ipomoea, Merremia tuberosa)

Woody nightshade (Celastrus, dulcamera)-berries

Y

Yam bean-roots, immature pods

Yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria)-berries

Yellow knapweed (Centaurea solstitialis)

Yellow jasmine (Gelsemium sempervirens)-whole plant

Yellow oleander-all parts, esp. kernels of fruit

Yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis)

Yerba-depasmo (Baccharis sp.)

Yew ( Taxus spp.)-foliage, twigs, berries